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Direct evidence in the Southeast is meager, but archaeological discoveries in related areas support this hypothesis. Moundbuilding cultures included the Woodland period people who first built Nanih Waiya.Scholars believe the mound was contemporary with such earthworks as Igomar Mound in Mississippi and Pinson Mounds in Tennessee.They transferred the Choctaw Academy there and opened an academy for girls in the 1840s.In the aftermath of the Dawes Act in the late 19th century, the US dissolved tribal governments in order to extinguish Indian land claims and admit the Indian and Oklahoma territories as a state in 1907.Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries.About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound located in what is central present-day Mississippi. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs.However, Jack Amos legally challenged the Choctaw Nation's stance at the turn of the 20th century.

In the 19th century, the Choctaw were classified by European Americans as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" because they adopted numerous practices of their United States neighbors.Their early government had three districts, each with its own chief, who together with the town chiefs sat on their National Council.They appointed a Choctaw Delegate to represent them to the US government in Washington, DC. Article 14 in the 1830 treaty with the Choctaw stated Choctaws may wish to become citizens of the United States under the 14th Article of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on all of the combined lands which were consolidated under Article I from all previous treaties between the United States and the Choctaw.Today the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, and the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians are the federally recognized Choctaw tribes. The Department of Interior has listed the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians as a trustee of Natural Resources in the Southeast Region of the United States.Mississippi also recognizes another band, and smaller Choctaw groups are located in Louisiana, Alabama, and Texas. The National Park Service under the Secretary of Interior has posted public notice of the MOWA Choctaw Indian Reservation in Alabama.

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